sábado, mayo 19, 2007

La Escuela de Psicolingüística soviética Vygotsky-Luria-Leontiev: el mecanismo de producción del lenguaje.

A.A. Leontiev. México, 2003.


KEYNOTE SPEECHES

Tatiana V. Akhutina
Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Moscow State University, Russia

Puede descargar la presentación de la conferencia en formato pdf (1) :
Para ver en tamaño mayor el documento, cuando lo abra, haga lo siguiente: Pinche en el comando Ventana ; se abrirá un cuadro: pinche en Vista en pantalla completa; use el botón derecho del ratón para pasar las diapositivas hacia delante y el izquierdo para retroceder; use la tecla Esc para salir de la presentación.
June 8–10, 2006
Centre for Applied Language Studies & Department of Languages, University of Jyväskylä, Finlandia.
Más información sobre el Congreso celebrado en conmemoración de A.A.Leontiev*(1936-2004) en:http://www.solki.jyu.fi/english/conference2006/#top
* Una dinastía de psicólogos: A.N.Leontiev - A.A.Leontiev - D.A.Leontiev. Ver galería de fotos en
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(1) Texto de las diapositivas:
  1. Vygotsky-Luria-Leontiev’s School of Psycholinguistics: the Mechanisms of Language Production T.V. Akhutina Moscow University Department of Psychology
  2. In commemoration of Aleksey Alekseevich Leontiev
  3. A.A.L.’s objective - • to integrate various approaches to obtain “a self-consistent theoretical framework” • one inheriting L.S. Vygotsky’s approach
  4. Vygotsky: «Analysis into units» • as a unit possessing «all qualities of the whole», A.A.L. identifies an elementary action, that is a «cell» of activity (1969, p.263). • A.A. considers psycholinguistics as a theory of speech activity
  5. An act of speech has its motive and goal and consists of three phases: planning, realisation, control. (after A.N. Leontiev) Planning ~ inner programming Realisation ~ grammar lexical operations operations
  6. Inner programming: - «A model of future» (N.A. Bernshtein), - “Plan” and “Image” in the T-O-T-E (G.Miller, K.Pribram, E.Galanter), - a component of speech, in which “pouring” of thought into speech begins (L.S.Vygotsky) A.A. Leontiev, 1967, 1969.
  7. Scientific foundations of psycholinguistics Vygotsky-Luria: • a principle of systemic structure of higher mental functions • a principle of dynamic organisation and localisation of higher mental functions Bernshtein, Vygotsky, Luria: central neural system phylogenesis follows the principle of accretion (over- growing)
  8. The principle of «accretion» (over-growing) Cf. «embodied cognition»: “language… emerges from, and is intimately linked to, the more evolutionarily entrenched sensorimotor substrates that allow us to comprehend (auditory/visual) and produce (motor) it. (Dick at al., 2005, p.238).
  9. The principle of “accretion”(over- growing) was used as a foundation of the classification of aphasias proposed by Luria. A.R. Luria hypothesised that functioning of speech areas demonstrated both characteristics common with areas they had emerged from and their own specific characteristics.
  10. Lesions of premotor area of the left frontal lobe (including frontal speech area) leads to the impairment of serial (successive) organisation of movements and also of speech: articulation sequencing, syntactic organization, text programming
  11. According to the principle of systemic structure of higher mental functions, a syndrome of aphasia includes: primary defect, system consequences, compensatory reorganization.
  12. A set of primary defects causing different types of aphasias = a set of operations necessary to generate and comprehend speech. This provides an opportunity to construct models of speech generation and comprehension.
  13. «…a theory presented in Leontiev, 1969 is a generalisation of the speech generation model proposed in collabotation with T.V. Ryabova (Akhutina)» (Leontiev, 2003, p.113)
  14. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION MECHANISM (Ryabova -Akhutina, 1967/2003 – J. of Russian and East European Psychology, v. 41) Construction of inner speech Selection of word meanings schema of utterance Grammatical Selection of word forms structuring Motor (kinetic) Selection of sounds programming (guided kinesthetically) + Acoustic control.
  15. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION MECHANISM (Ryabova -Akhutina, 1967/2003 – J. of Russian and East European Psychology, v. 41) Grammatical structuring Motor (kinetic) programming Efferent Motor Aphasia
  16. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION MECHANISM (Ryabova -Akhutina, 1967/2003 – J. of Russian and East European Psychology, v. 41) Construction of inner speech schema of utterance Dynamic Aphasia.
  17. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION MECHANISM (Ryabova -Akhutina, 1967/2003 – J. of Russian and East European Psychology, v. 41) Construction of inner speech Selection of word meanings schema of utterance Grammatical structuring Motor (kinetic) programming + Semantic Aphasia
  18. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION MECHANISM (Ryabova -Akhutina, 1967/2003 – J. of Russian and East European Psychology, v. 41) Construction of inner speech Selection of word meanings schema of utterance Grammatical Selection of word forms structuring Motor (kinetic) programming + Acoustic - mnestic Aphasia
  19. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION MECHANISM (Ryabova -Akhutina, 1967/2003 – J. of Russian and East European Psychology, v. 41) Construction of inner speech Selection of word meanings schema of utterance Grammatical Selection of word forms structuring Motor (kinetic) programming + Acoustic control Sensory Aphasia
  20. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION MECHANISM (Ryabova -Akhutina, 1967/2003 – J. of Russian and East European Psychology, v. 41) Construction of inner speech Selection of word meanings schema of utterance Grammatical Selection of word forms structuring Selection of sounds Motor (kinetic) (guided kinesthetically) programming + Acoustic control Afferent Motor Aphasia
  21. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION SCHEMA (Akhutina, 1989) MOTIVE THOUGHT SENSE SYNTAX Selection of SENCES of programming INNER WORDS SEMANTIC STRUCTURE Selection of programming WORD MEANINGS SURFACE GRAMMAR Selection of structuring WORD FORMS MOTOR KINETIC Selection of programming
  22. ARTICULEMES LANGUAGE PRODUCTION SCHEMA (Akhutina, 1989) MOTIVE THOUGHT SENSE SYNTAX Selection of SENCES of programming INNER WORDS SEMANTIC Selection of STRUCTURE WORD MEANINGS programming SURFACE Selection of GRAMMAR WORD FORMS structuring MOTOR KINETIC Selection of programming ARTICULEMES
  23. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION SCHEMA (Akhutina, 1989) MOTIVE THOUGHT TOPIC – COMMENT Selection of SENCES of organization INNER WORDS CASE GRAMMAR Selection of Ag – O - Action WORD MEANINGS SURFACE Selection of GRAMMAR S – V - O WORD FORMS MOTOR KINETIC Selection of programming
  24. ARTICULEMES ACTS of “LIVING DRAMA of VERBAL THINKING”: motive thought inner speech semantic layer outer speech
  25. “The movement of thinking from thought to word is a developmental process. Of course, it is not an age related development, but a functional development” (Vygotsky, v.1, p. 250). Uncovering of the inner logic of the drama… of development, of the dynamic linkage of its separate acts and adventures is the main objective… of our investigation. (Vygotsky, v.5, p. 273)
  26. THOUGHT “any thought strives to unit something with something else, it has movement, flow… it fulfills some function, solves a problem.” (Vygotsky, v.1, p. 280)
  27. LESION of LEFT FRONTAL LOBE Retelling of the text after reading repeated three times: One man had a hen… She walked… putted on flesh… After the forth reading: One man had a hen… She lived and let to live others, picked up seeds, worked hard… and thanks to it lived… (Luria, 1966) (One man had a hen which laid gold eggs. The man liked to have more gold and killed the hen. But nothing was there.)
  28. LESION of LEFT FRONTAL LOBE A structure of the story that should be stored and retrieved voluntarily, is being simplified and substituted with an involuntary flow of associations. Controlled processes of information processing suffer and are being substituted by automatic processes.
  29. “any thought strives to unit something with something else, it has movement, flow… it fulfills some function, solves a problem.” (Vygotsky, v.1, p. 280) This dynamic aspect of thinking suffers in cases of left frontal lobe lesions.
  30. “Thought is always something whole… What is contained simultaneously in thought, unfolds sequentially in speech. (Vygotsky, v.1, p. 281)
  31. (dibujo de casa)
  32. (dibujo de casa)
  33. Global holistic strategy of information processing suffers in cases of right hemisphere lesions.
  34. LESION of RIGHT FRONTAL LOBE 1. On the first one… a woman seems to hand-knit / and a man is doing something else… / 2. Here one man meets another man / 3. Here two men talk to each other/ a woman is also present… /
  35. 4. There is a tea party here // 5. Here one man offers a cigar to another one 6. Here a woman treats two interlocutors/and offers them vine /
  36. 7. Here he is pretty drunken / two people are yawning / and one man is smiling / 8. And this man tells a pretty interesting story to those two / those two are listening to him// 9. Here one man sets the clock back or forward, and another one pours himself some vine /
  37. 10. … one in either full up / or whatever / and another one is still merry / he is drinking / he hasn’t had enough probably/… 11. I don’t completely understand this one / one is among those two / he lies as a drunkard // (An example by V.Y.Kotsovskaya and M.A.Gritsyshina) 37
  38. FRAME – a piece of knowledge or a data structure representing stereotypic visual information
  39. Pronounced difficulties in comprehension and recollection of material in patients with right hemisphere lesions (holistic strategy weakness) could be explained through the lack of support from frames, or contextual cues.
  40. Frames with their situational «quasiperceptual» organisation allow to maintain the integrity of the semantic field and protect against associations that are far from the current situation. Conclusion: Left hemisphere supports the dynamics of utterance “unfolding”, whereas the right one secures the semantic integrity.
  41. INNER SPEECH Inner speech suffers due to dynamic aphasia (lesions of left frontal lobe areas in front of the Broca area) – Luria, 1948, 1963, 1975; Tsvetkova, 1968, 1969; Akhutina, 1970, 1975. Inner speech becomes externalized when processes of semantic and surface syntaxing suffer (due to Broca area lesions) – Akhutina, 1975, 1989.
  42. EXTERNALIZATION OF INNER SPEECH Stories after a set of pictures «A balloon has flown away» Kids and a grandchild… grandfather… and a balloon… and a lad… Granny! Granny! Balloon! Balloon! A journal, no, not a journal -- book… Pioneer… a bench… here… The granny… saw… kids… a balloon… very good… very good… a bench… a balloon… Sun. (An example by M.K. Shokhor-Trotskaya) 1. A grandfather gives a balloon to his grandkids. There is a schoolboy sitting on the bench by them and reading a book. 2. Kids play with the balloon. 3. The balloon flies away and hitches of the tree. 4. The schoolboy reaches the balloon. 5. He returns the balloon to the kids.
  43. Grandfather gives a balloon. Boy book a bench. Kids - two: boy, girl. Small: girl – skirt, boy - trousers. The grandfather whiskers. Moscow street. A floor of a house. Kids -- kids a baloon. Kids were walking to… to… oh, no… A boy and a girl. Sun... Kids were walking. The balloon fell down, no thread… Pioneer - pioneer a baloon tree. The pioneer the balloon – «Here!» Kids – very thanks. (An example by M.K. Shokhor-Trotskaya)
  44. A HIERARCHY OF PREDICATES Kids – two: boy, girl. Little – girl skirt, boy pants. Kids – two boy girl little girl boy skirt pants
  45. The contents of the picture is in the attentional field of a speaker. (S)he focuses attention on a certain component of the picture and marks it with an inner word. This word becomes a representative of all the implied mental contents. It “absorbs” the attentional field, i.e. becomes loaded with situational meaning (sense). The situational meaning (sense) is maintained and protected by the actualised frame (script).
  46. There are stable forms of semantic development of discourse – genres. There are also stable forms of semantic integrity maintenance – frames (scripts).
  47. Utterance construction is polyphonic, it can be considered as a «real drama of verbal thinking».
    Methodology of psycho- and neurolinguistics Vygotsky-Luria: • a principle of systemic structure of higher mental functions • a principle of dynamic organisation and localisation of higher mental functions
  48. Confusion of primary and secondary defects: some examples 16-36 months old infants with left temporal lobe lesions demonstrate delayed development of both speech comprehension and speaking.
  49. The conclusion is usually that in infants of this age, as opposed to adults, speech generation is supported by posterior areas of left hemisphere (Thal et al., 1991; Stiles et al., 1998; Finlay, 2005; Dick, 2005).
  50. 2. Denial of differences between syntactic and lexical mechanisms. 1st argument: active use of two-word syntactic constructions emerges only given a certain volume of vocabulary (Bates at al., 1988). 2nd argument: normal subject demonstrate behaviour similar to agrammatism under perceptual and cognitive stress (Bates at al., 1994). 3rd argument: at a certain stage of training, a neural network model demonstrates a well-known “overregularisation” effect (bringed instead of brought).
  51. A claim concerning difference of syntactic and lexical mechanisms Access for words like gave is mediated, as a whole form, through temporal lobe systems. Forms like played require the simultaneous access of the lexical content associated with the stem play (primarily mediated by temporal lobe systems), and of the grammatical implications of the {-d} morpheme (primarily mediated by inferior frontal systems). (Marslen-Wilson, Tyler, 2005).
  52. LANGUAGE PRODUCTION SCHEMA (Akhutina, 1989) MOTIVE THOUGHT SENSE SYNTAX Selection of SENCES of programming INNER WORDS SEMANTIC STRUCTURE Selection of programming WORD MEANINGS SURFACE GRAMMAR Selection of structuring WORD FORMS MOTOR KINETIC Selection of programming ARTICULEMES.