viernes, julio 21, 2006

Autismo y Visión. Resúmenes MedPub. 2-3-4-5

2. Ophthalmologic signs in children with autism [Article in French]
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Departement de Strabologie et d'Ophtalmopediatrie, Hopital La Timone, Marseille.
PURPOSE: Autism is a clinical entity defined by characteristic association of a lack of social interactions and communications, beginning before three years of age. The purpose of this study was to screen ophthalmologic findings in autistic children.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten autistic children, 6 girls and 4 boys, underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination in the Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology at the Hospital La Timone, Marseilles, France. Their age ranged from 1 to 14 years (mean = 8.5 +/- 3.8). RESULTS: Refraction showed hypermetropia in 7 cases (70%), astigmatism more than 1 diopter in 6 cases (60%), bilateral astigmatism in 4 cases (40%) and unilateral astigmatism in 2 cases (20%). Astigmatism axis was oblique for 8 eyes, with the rule for 6 eyes and against the rule for 2 eyes. Strabismus was present in 6 cases (60%) including 4 cases of exotropia. Fundus examination found pallor of the optic disc in 4 cases.
CONCLUSION: Ophthalmologic findings in autistic children appear to be mainly unilateral or bilateral astigmatism and binocular vision troubles. They can lead to amblyopia with the risk of functional loss of vision. Early diagnosis of visual problems in autistic children is also essential in order to be able to propose adequate psychological and educational cares for the children and their family.
PMID: 9099268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
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3. Delayed visual maturation--a differential diagnostic challenge. A follow-up study of 13 children with delayed visual development with or without other developmental disorders. [Article in Norwegian]
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Seksjon for barneneurologi og habilitering Barneavdelingen Ulleval sykehus.
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Early visual impairment represents several diagnostic possibilities from specific delayed visual maturation (type 1) with an excellent prognosis to more complex conditions with other ocular or neurological signs (type 2-4). Visual attention and interaction has been an interesting field of study in the interaction between biologically pre-programmed neonatal competencies and social facilitation. From these studies we can probably learn more about ((cloudy)) diagnoses such as cortical visual impairment, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism. Investigations and follow-up of 13 infants who did not show any visual interest at 6 - 12 weeks old are presented, along with proposals for the clinical management of these problems.
PMID: 8975403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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4. Deficits in the initiation of eye movements in the absence of a visual target in adolescents with high functioning autism.
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The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 707 North Broadway, Suite 522, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. goldbergm@kennedykrieger.org
BACKGROUND: We used ocular motor paradigms to examine whether or not saccades are impaired in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA).
METHODS: We recorded eye movements in patients with HFA (n=11), and in normal adolescents (n=11) on anti-saccade, memory-guided saccade (MGS), predictive saccade and gap/overlap tasks.
RESULTS: Compared with the normal subjects, patients with HFA had (1) a significantly higher percentage of directional errors on the anti-saccade task (63.2% versus 26.6%), (2) a significantly higher percentage of response suppression errors on a MGS task (60.3% versus 29.5%) and (3) a significantly lower percentage of predictive eye movements on a predictive saccade task. They also showed longer latencies on a MGS task and for all conditions tested on a gap/null/overlap task (fixation target extinguished before, simultaneously, or after the new peripheral target appeared). When the latencies during the gap condition were subtracted from the latencies in the overlap condition, there was no difference between patients and normals. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in ocular motor function in patients with HFA provide preliminary evidence for involvement of a number of brain regions in HFA including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and possibly the basal ganglia and parietal lobes.
PMID: 12208001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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5. Neuro-ophthalmologic findings in the Asperger disorder.
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University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.
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Asperger disorder is a complex behavioral disorder that may be related to autism. We examined a 49-year-old man with Asperger disorder who had multiple neuro-ophthalmologic abnormalities, including colobomatous defects involving the optic discs and peripapillary retina, and abnormal ocular motility with an oculocephalic dyskinesia. Asperger disorder may be associated with a variety of neuro-ophthalmologic disturbances.
PMID: 8865011 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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